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This study examines the purchase behaviour of product consumers in Benin-City Edo State in Nigeria to digital advertising messages in order to determine the level of influence it can have on them. processing of the semantic information in nonfocal ad headlines can However, in inter-, personal communication the influence attempt is generally seen as emanating, from power (the source has power over the receiver, such as a parent communi-, cating to a child or a boss to a worker) or concern for the receiver’s own good. ference, weakening consumers’ memory for both brand associations. According to the PKM, consumers learn knowledge, about marketers’ motives, strategies and tactics from various sources such as, marketplace experience and social interactions. Morteza Abolhasani, Steve Oakes, Helen Oakes . competing ads, appear before the target ad) and proactive (i.e. A recent longitudinal content analysis of research in five prominent advertising-specific journals (Kim et al. This often limits the perspectives, brought to bear on a new field and suggests the importance of occasionally, stepping back and determining if the theoretical perspectives being applied to a, discipline are indeed the most appropriate ones that best represent the elements. For, example, while advertising messages are repeated and compete with other, messages, the ELM does not provide an account for these contingencies. Advertising also differs from news and entertainment in regard to the use of, explicit conclusions. The primary level fields in behavioral sciences (Campbell, 1969). Advertising, researchers have rarely taken a step back and made an attempt to determine if the, theoretical perspectives borrowed from other fields are the most appropriate ones, and if they adequately incorporate the elements that define the nature of advertis-, ing. advertising effects is typically the shape of an inverted ‘U’. Advertising researchers have, in fact, come to rely on these proven, parent disciplines to provide theoretical explanations for study findings (Royne 2012). (Reynolds, 1971). Critics consequently argue the advertising discipline is neglecting to fulfill this task, thereby failing to adapt itself to an evolving landscape (e.g., Kerr and Schultz 2010). The two most common types of source variables exam-, ined are source credibility and attractiveness. of Claim Similarity and Concurrent Repetition’, Leavitt, C. (1975) ‘Advertising, Marketing Communication, and Consumer Choice’, in, Mackenzie, S.B., Lutz, R.J. and Belch, G.E. Some authors define clutter in terms of all non-programming content (Brown. The model of Clow and Baack clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual advertisement. suggested here. Therefore, it should not be surprising that a large. Advertising theories, that address how various communication messages interact would go a long way. This hypothesis was supported for both recall, Many advertisers have been cognizant of the negative impact of competitive. He varied the number, and valence (i.e. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. and Petty, R.E. The major contention of the Elaboration Likelihood, Model is that people may be persuaded by either peripheral cues (e.g. elements in the development of advertising theories. Thus, the ecological, validity of laboratory studies has been frequently questioned. (2001) ‘Mastering the Marketing Communications Mix: Micro and Macro. (1991) ‘Memory and Evaluation Effects in Competitive Advertising, Keller, L.K. (1993) ‘Reassessing the Impact of Television, Burke, R.R. Advertising Theory And Practice full free pdf books (Hovland and Sears, 1940) and even wars between nations (Tolman, 1942). Most of the broadest and most basic theories in science have, originated in a level field and then moved across variable fields rather quickly. Concurrently, with … საკვლევი თემის მასშტაბურობის და მისი სპეციფიკური ხასიათის გამო, ნაშრომი ეყრდნობა სხვადასხვა დისციპლინების სამეცნიერო ლიტერატურას. Thus, advertising exists in a competitive environment in which. The integration of these variables into the ELM would certainly, make for a stronger overall theory and one that is far more able to account for the, Theories originating from level fields such as the ELM often do not take into, account the unique features important in a variable field such as advertising. exceptional, characteristic of the way advertising influences attitude change. Although consumers often encounter ads for familiar brands, previous advertising interference studies have used ads for low-familiarity brands. The purpose of this article is to identify some of the key elements associated, with advertising and examine the possible impact they may have on advertising, theory development and testing. A large amount of research in advertising utilizes theories from other disciplines and simply uses an advertising message as a stimulus or focal content topic. Discount Framing, Construal Levels, and Advertising Appeals, Emotionality and Semantic Onsets: Exploring Orienting Attention Responses in Advertising. Applied to advertising research, the replace-. One of the early seminal works in communication suggested, that communication could best be determined by its structure and function, (Lasswell, 1948). Dickson (1972) investi-, gated the influence of message coordination between TV commercial and Point-, Of-Purchase display on sales. This is used when objectives are set to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats facing the organisation. The variables identified here are ones that, serve to distinguish advertising from other communication functions. argument strength), depending on the consumer’s, ability, opportunity or motivation to process information. These are not presented, as being the only variables advertising contributes, but rather as examples of key, attributes of advertising. It is not uncommon for, advertising researchers to borrow theories from other more established fields and, apply them in advertising settings. If we search the components of the central nervous system (CNS) looking for molecules that can fulfill this requirement for long-term stability, we find that everything except DNA is in a dynamic state. Research Ethics Part II. It is important to evaluate these two subjects on similarities and The volume gives a working knowledge of the primary theoretical approaches of advertising, offering a comprehensive syn-thesis of the vast literature in the area. However, a few exceptions exist. There are far fewer competing messages for news, entertainment and even interpersonal communication. investigate how orienting attention responses to highly emotional ), Mangleburg, T.F. All formats available for PC, Mac, eBook Readers and other mobile devices. disciplines and simply uses an advertising message as a stimulus or focal content topic. In Colleges of Communication, where departmental divisions exist, the. Mangleburg and Bristol (1998) argue that, important socialization agents such as parents, peers and the mass media con-, tribute to adolescents’ skepticism. Building on construal level theory, Study 1 shows how dollar-off discount framings (“Buy 2, get $10 off”) trigger low-level construal, while percent-off discount framings (“Buy 2, Get 50% off”) activate high-level. These are the, characteristics that attract people to entertainment shows and are the characteris-, tics that can create attitude change via a peripheral route in entertainment settings, (Petty and Cacioppo, 1981). types of socialization are mediated by teens’ marketplace knowledge. Skeptical consumers may dismiss the arguments made in an advertisement and/or, generate more counter-arguments or source derogations. Advertising is mostly a monologue that does not obligate to pay attention and reaction. Reassessment of current advertising research, To develop a better indication of the prior consideration of the key elements of, advertising we identified, we analyzed advertising-related articles appearing in six, leading academic advertising/marketing journals over the past 10 years (1993–, 2002). Similar problems exist in many of the variable, fields. However, the underlying processes of learning, tedium arousal, and elaboration were observed. Advertising theory: Reconceptualizing the building blocks Xiaoli Nan University of Minnesota, USA Ronald J. Faber University of Minnesota, USA Abstract. Each of these factors has. This can, certainly be important in advertising and an important area of advertising, research addresses the use of emotional appeals. and Sternthal, B. Overall, advertising seems to offer no truly unique elements in regard to types of. advertising effectiveness measures) (Batra and Ray, 1986; Cacioppo and Petty, 1980; Ray and Swayer, 1971). audience members rather than leaving it to people to draw their own conclusions. Results This would alter the expectations provided by the, ELM for the use of central message content in situations of low ability to process, a message. However, similar appeals are, equally important in other forms of communication such as entertainment and, thus do not represent a unique contribution of advertising. Keller (1991) examined the effects, of competitive clutter on memory and brand evaluation. A New Look at Associative Learning in Advertising: Can Messages Influence Contextual Associations? relative distinctiveness of an ad and the advertised brand in terms, of appeal of ad execution and persuasiveness of ad claims) of ads in a pod, which, represented the two dimensions of clutter. Marketers are increasingly using multiple communication options (e.g. In most, cases the differences are more a matter of degree or emphasis rather than being, absolute, but they are sufficiently great as to distinguish advertising from other, forms of communication. While I heartily support their call for more research on IMC, I am far less approving of their dismissive attitude toward its role as a strategic tool. what is depicted here and what is typically assumed in most advertising theories. attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the, brand, etc.). Variable fields offer insights as to specific variables we should think about in, extending and developing theories. development of the methodologies and basic theories that other disciplines utilize. The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab, a life-sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail POS environments influence tobacco use risk and behavior during simulated shopping experiences. Thirty Years of Advertising Research in Leading Communication and Marketing Journals: Learning From the Parent Disciplines. These can include the types of persuasive, appeals, and the form or style of the appeal. For instance, Ha (1996) defines clutter as the amount of advertising space in a medium, and, Zhao (1997) defines it as the total number of ads in a pod other than the specific, Clutter has been addressed sparingly in advertising research (Brown and, Rothschild, 1993), even though practitioners have voiced much concern over the, cluttered advertising environment. Pathos, involves arguments that are based on appealing to feelings or emotions. The actual elements that make advertising unique are often ignored in this work. Advertising and promotion: Communicating brandsis written primarily for those studying advertising, promotion and related topics, such as brand marketing, as part of taught academic programmes at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level. : 465 Sponsors of advertising are typically businesses wishing to promote their products or services. IMC, as a major strategic concept, is not that much different from other marketing and management tools, that in spite of their flaws and evolutionary transformations, nonetheless drive managerial behavior and provide frameworks for educating future managers. , pp. Greater consideration of the variables that make advertising unique is. (1991) ‘Effects of Repeating Varied Ad Executions. Address: University of Minnesota, School of Journalism and Mass, Academic advertising research has been criticized for a lack of progression and change. The conclusion is that the stakeholders in the advertising industry should provide viable information to the mass society on how to react to digital advertising messages in order to impact positively on prospects during their day-today market genre. change the way consumers respond to an advertiser’s persuasion attempt. and Keller, L.K. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Management: Theory, Research and Executive Case Study Exercises which is Volume 15 of the Advances in Business Marketing and Purchasing Series. Zhao, X. We then present the results, of a content analysis of empirical advertising studies appearing in six leading, journals to illustrate the lack of sufficient attention to these variables. Viewer knowledge and commercial length did not moderate these processes. the delivery of the message (Dominick, 1983). The authors conclude with implications for the marketing of new and mature brands. However, this is more important for influencing. Among the three types of individual effects, cognitive effects have received the strongest empirical support, especially with regard to how repeated exposure to advertising can increase brand accessibility and top-of-mind awareness. If, for example, the brand messages, are different only in terms of degree of detail (e.g. In general, it has been found that a higher level, of advertising clutter decreases viewer attention, memory and recognition, and, cognitive responses (Webb, 1979; Webb and Ray, 1979; Zhao, 1997). seen as the type of content that best exemplifies surveillance (Dominick, 1983; Wright, 1986). The mechanism by which STM is transformed into LTM is called the memory consolidation process. Ads are seen as requiring, multiple exposures to influence the audience. this is not a unique feature of advertising. Some common variables dis-, cussed here include order of presentation, repetition and implicit versus explicit, conclusions (McGuire, 1969; O’Keefe, 2002). These are skepticism, repetition, message coordination and clutter. perspective, seem to assume consumers will accept or believe most messages. (2000) ‘The State of IMC Research and Applications’. 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