Usually the criteria are set in accordance with the severity of the problems. I will show that just four metrics is all that is needed to get on top of this problem. In general, short fix response time leads to customer satisfaction. Here are four metrics … Downtime is incredibly costly for any company which has assets. This explains the rise and fall of the problem arrivals and closures. How do we verify quality as we develop? Fix quality Response tim… With enough data points, the techniques of control charting can be used to calculate the backlog management capability of the maintenance process. If the number of defects, and therefore the fixes, is large, then the small value of the percentage metric will show an optimistic picture, although the number of defective fixes could be quite large. It is even worse if the fixes turn out to be defective. VMware Tanzu A portfolio of products and services … A defective fix can be recorded in two ways: Record it in the month it was discovered or record it in the month the fix was delivered. On a more granular level, software development managers are trying to: 1. Product Metrics:These are the measures of various characteristics of the software product. These metrics can be easily be understood by non-technical leaders too. It is important to note that the metric of percent delinquent fixes is a cohort metric. Fix response time and fix responsiveness 3. If the index is below 1, that means the team is fixing problems faster than the problem arrival rate. If the dealer leaves a timely phone message on her answering machine at work saying that her van is ready to pick up, Julia will be even more satisfied. While performing maintenance, you can make four types of changes to your software: Corrective — detection and correction of faults. More and more software companies are realizing how important is to have a solid developer community and start hiring DevRel roles for their core business. https:///www.scopemaster.com, ScopeMaster ® Copyright 2017 - 2020 | All Rights Reserved | ScopeMaster Ltd |. The fix response time metric is usually calculated as follows for all problems as well as by severity level: Mean time of all problems from open to closed. When you use UpKeep or another free CMMS software to help track your maintenance KPIs over time, tracking over time can be as easy as 1,2,3. If you’d like to know more about how to manage software projects more successfully and how to use these metrics effectively, please get in touch. Three Useful Maintenance Metrics 1. More investigation and analysis should be triggered when the value of BMI exceeds the control limits. These maintenance metrics are not too hard to collect if you have maintenance management software. For example, John takes his car to the dealer for servicing in the early morning and needs it back by noon. Software projects are often delayed, exceed their budgets and in some cases fail altogether. What are the root causes of software bugs, Computing DevOps Award for best Cloud Product 2020, Four Metrics for Successful Software Projects. Examples of Important KPI Metrics to Benchmark & Track. Software Maintenance is the process of modifying a software product after it has been delivered to the customer. Software evolution program evolution dynamics software maintenance complexity and process metrics evolution processes 1. You may also find that you have one response time goal for work orders on critical pieces of equipment, and one goal for less critical pieces of equipment. Therefore, these two de facto metrics, although important, do not reflect the quality of software maintenance. In this episode, I discuss four software and operations metrics to start with when you’re doing your digital transformation, app modernization stuff: deployment frequency, lead time for changes, time . Usually the longer the latency, the more customers are affected because there is more time for customers to apply that defective fix to their software system. Qualitative metrics are incredibly helpful so long as company leaders have developed an understanding and intuition about the mechanics of using software to innovate. The difference between a successful organization and a s… Figure 4.6 shows the real-time delivery index diagrammatically. If there are data points with extreme values, medians should be used instead of mean. Metrics play a important role, when it comes to measuring a process from various dimensions, assessing it and target improvements. Metric #3: Defects (found and created) per CFP. The following metrics are therefore very important: 4.3.1 Fix Backlog and Backlog Management Index. In this chapter from his book on software quality engineering, Stephen H. Kan discusses several metrics in each of three groups of software quality metrics: product quality, in-process quality, and maintenance quality. The cohort concept is important because if it is operationalized as a cross-sectional measure, then invalid metrics will result. For any type of software (business application, enhancements, maintenance, system software, embedded systems) focussing on just these four metrics really works: Size is not everything that matters on software, but it is the most significant factor on software projects. You should also use them even when everything is going well. The history of software engineering and software metrics is almost from the same era. 4.3.2 Fix Response Time and Fix Responsiveness. In maintenance management, bug fixing comes at priority to run the software seamlessly. Having a good Maintenance Strategy in place, can reduce downtime by more than 30%! For example, one CEO at a large retailer began asking product teams what they’d learned in recent releases in addition to checking the status and budget of projects. There is even a certification exam to ensure that you measure correctly. What will it cost? Percent delinquent fixes 4. For the successful software development and maintenance, Measurement is a key technology. An Example of Module Design Metrics in Practice, 1 Definition and Measurements of System Availability, Reliability, Availability, and Defect Rate, Collecting Customer Outage Data for Quality Improvement, Software Process Maturity Assessment and Software Project Assessment, A Proposed Software Project Assessment Method, Staged versus Continuous Debating Religion, Keep It Simple or Face Decomplexification, Measuring the Value of Process Improvement, Celebrate the Journey, Not Just the Destination, Measuring Process Improvements at Activity Levels, Getting Started with a Software Metrics Program, Statistical Process Control in Software Development, Hack 60. A variation of the problem backlog index is the ratio of number of opened problems (problem backlog) to number of problem arrivals during the month. For example, we have seen practices in which at the end of each week the number of problems in backlog (problems still to be fixed) and the number of delinquent open problems were counted, and the percent delinquent problems was calculated. You learn more by practice or practically as compared to the only theoretical knowledge or by book reading. Firstly, it is important to use valid metrics. Reduce overtime 5. It can be classified into three categories: product metrics, process metrics, and project metrics. Measuring size is possible. ), Figure 4.5. Software Maintenance Types . Such cases could occur for less severe problems for which customers may be satisfied with the circumvention and didn't demand a fix. It can be done using the universally applicable, valid, consistent, open, engineering (ISO) standard measurement for software size COSMIC function points. The issues can be occurred in hardware, operating systems or any part of software. It is a simple count of reported problems that remain at the end of each month or each week. Why Tanzu; Products. Applying the Seven Basic Quality Tools in Software Development, Exponential Distribution and Reliability Growth Models, Metrics and Lessons Learned for Object-Oriented Projects, Measuring and Analyzing Customer Satisfaction, Conducting In-Process Quality Assessments, Dos and Donts of Software Process Improvement, Using Function Point Metrics to Measure Software Process Improvements, Metrics and Models in Software Quality Engineering (2nd Edition), The .NET Developers Guide to Directory Services Programming, Practical Software Metrics for Project Management and Process Improvement, Managing the Testing Process: Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing, Applied Software Measurement: Global Analysis of Productivity and Quality, The Certified Software Quality Engineer Handbook, Introducing Microsoft Office InfoPath 2003 (Bpg-Other), Process Maturity Framework and Quality Standards, Definition, Operational Definition, and Measurement, A Closer Look at Defect Removal Effectiveness, Defect Removal Effectiveness and Quality Planning, Cost Effectiveness of Phase Defect Removal, Defect Removal Effectiveness and Process Maturity Level, Estimating the Distribution of Total Defects over Time, The PTR Arrival and Backlog Projection Model, In-Process Metrics and Quality Management, Possible Metrics for Acceptance Testing to Evaluate Vendor-Developed Software. Measuring Downtime as a KPI, can help Maintenance Department t… Using them them will also help to reduce some common software project risks. The result is a tree structure of maintainability metrics which can be used for purposes of evaluating the relative maintainability of the software system. Can the long bug-fixing periods be avoided? The metric of percent defective fixes is simply the percentage of all fixes in a time interval (e.g., 1 month) that are defective. For example, the efficiency of fault detection. Tracking, analyzing and optimizing the performance of these two elements is the key to maintenance success. Fix backlog and backlog management index 2. Software development metrics are quantitative measurements of a software product or project, which can help management understand software performance, quality, or the productivity and efficiency of software teams. When development of a software product is complete and it is released to the market, it enters the maintenance phase of its life cycle. The metric for IBM Rochester's fix responsiveness is operationalized as percentage of delivered fixes meeting committed dates to customers. There is an argument against using percentage for defective fixes. According to Vanson Bourne research, Average downtime costs 240.000 US dollars per hour according to decision makers in Field service and Service management. The mean (or median) response time metric is a central tendency measure. These metrics can be computed for different stages of SDLC. In fact, IBM Rochester's practice originated from a benchmarking exchange with HP some years ago. A BMI trend chart or control chart should be examined together with trend charts of defect arrivals, defects fixed (closed), and the number of problems in the backlog. From a driver regularly changing the oil in his car to the hydraulic technician ensuring the system pressure is consistent on a 3,500-ton metal-forming press, there are innumerable tasks being performed worldwide that keep plant operations going and assets performing. After a while of tracking response times, you’ll be able to set goals for your maintenance department based on your organization’s needs. I will introduce just four valid metrics that can provide a common language for executives to use in the context of software investment decisions and that will help achieve greater project success. From the customer's perspective, it is bad enough to encounter functional defects when running a business on the software. The leading indicator comprises from metrics like the Estimated vs actual performance and PM Compliance, while the lagging indicatorare reflected in maintenance metrics like the Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), Overall Equipment Effectiveness OEE and Mean time between failure (MTBF). By comparing them to previously achieved goals, the metrics are given context, which allows individuals to better understand the progress they’ve achieved. Adaptive — changes to your software that keep it compatible with the changing software environments such as hardware and operating … There are many inappropriate metrics that are frequently promoted such as counting lines of code, story points, and t-shirt sizes, but these usually lead to poor management decisions because the metrics on which the decisions are being based, are unreliable. How quickly are we creating the software? It is important to make corrective changes regularly. If the dealer promises noon but does not get the car ready until 2 o'clock, John will not be a satisfied customer. In most cases it is also useful to track some related measures, such as: At the core of this recommendation is size measurement in COSMIC function points. Users will often identify bugs and report them. They are used to measur… Reduce costsThese goals ca… A fix is defective if it did not fix the reported problem, or if it fixed the original problem but injected a new defect. The difference between the two dates is the latent period of the defective fix. This must be done without hurting rest of the functionalities of existing software. Create a List of Personalized Parameters, Cisco IOS in a Nutshell (In a Nutshell (OReilly)), Managing Enterprise Systems with the Windows Script Host, Introduction to 80x86 Assembly Language and Computer Architecture, Microsoft Visual Basic .NET Programmers Cookbook (Pro-Developer). Here is a re-cap of those four key metrics for managing successful software projects: Colin Hammond is a consultant in project assurance and creator of the world’s first analyser of software requirements for automated quality assurance and estimation. These four metrics will go a long way to helping IT managers ensure that their projects are delivered successfully , regardless of techniques they adopt (agile, scaled agile, kanban, waterfall) . The following metrics are therefore very important: Fix backlog and backlog management index; Fix response time and fix responsiveness; Percent delinquent fixes; Fix quality; 4.3.1 Fix Backlog and Backlog Management Index. The document then identifies typical business process and results metrics that can be used as key performance indicators for the maintenance function. Software testing metrics and breakdown of topics for the software maintenance ka. However, there is a subtle difference between fix responsiveness and short fix response time. The finance director cannot be expected to understand the terminology and nuances of scaled agile, risk based-testing coverage rates, code complexity levels, story points, t-shirt sizes etc. And yet, software project problems don’t seem to go away. ( Note: We call the BMI chart a pseudo-control chart because the BMI data are autocorrelated and therefore the assumption of independence for control charts is violated. So the first metric is: Metric #1: Functional Size in COSMIC Function Points (CFP). Can project predictability be improved? Process Metrics:These are the measures of various characteristics of the software development process. During this phase the defect arrivals by time interval and customer problem calls (which may or may not be defects) by time interval are the de facto metrics. In consequence a similar attempt has been made to develop maintenance performance metrics in the next section. I’ve spent 30 years in IT, looked at hundreds of software projects and learned much from other experts. This cross-sectional counting approach neglects problems that were processed and closed before the end of the week, and will create a high delinquent index when significant improvement (reduction in problems backlog) is made. This is not all there is to managing software. Intuitively, most everyone understands that there is value in maintaining assets in a reliable working state. For those wanting to shortcut and accelerate the process, a CFP estimate can be generated automatically from requirements by using ScopeMaster. Types of Software Metrics Formal code metrics —Such as Lines of Code (LOC), code complexity, Instruction Path Length, etc. From the customer's perspective, the use of averages may mask individual differences. Product metrics describe the characteristics of the product such as size, complexity, design features, performance, and quality level. Quality and reliability of software. The important thing to remember is that effective performance metrics are ones that can easily be compared to established benchmarks or objectives. It is related to both the rate of defect arrivals and the rate at which fixes for reported problems become available. Therefore, the problem may remain open for a long time in the tracking report. Increase return on investment (ROI) 2. The first is a customer measure, the second is a process measure. Therefore, this variant index is also a statement of fix responsiveness. You will get a quick measure of your maintenance program as well as identify early actions to take if the metrics are changing in a negative way. The latest release of the product was available to customers in the month for the first data points on the two charts. How big is your project really? How Do You Know Your Product Is Good Enough to Ship? For mission-critical software, defective fixes are detrimental to customer satisfaction. This metric, therefore, should be a straight count of the number of defective fixes. The two important software characteristics are: 1. Lagging indicators follow events, and include maintenance metrics such as Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time to Repair (MTTR). Qualitative metrics are incredibly helpful so long as company leaders have developed an understanding and intuition about the mechanics of using software to innovate. If BMI is less than 100, then the backlog increased. Yet the whole boardroom needs to be able to have a conversation about software investment that they can all understand. Most software metrics are unsuitable for non-technical leaders. In this writer's knowledge, the systems software development of Hewlett-Packard (HP) in California and IBM Rochester's systems software development have fix responsiveness processes similar to the process just illustrated by the automobile examples. Therefore, these two de facto metrics, although important, do not reflect the quality of software maintenance. YES! Fix backlog is a workload statement for software maintenance. 2. Process quality Metrics: Process metrics can be used to measure and enhance process of software development, maintenance and testing. UpKeep, in particular, makes the process intuitive with its easy-to-use graphic interface. Problems that are still open must be factored into the calculation for a real-time metric. For each of these attributes the authors show a metric definition consistent with the published definitions of the software characteristic being measured. Although much cannot be done to alter the quality of the product during this phase, following are the fixes that can be carried out to eliminate the defects as soon as possible with excellent fix quality. If the index is 1, that means the team maintains a backlog the same as the problem arrival rate. Assuming the time unit is 1 week, we propose that the percent delinquent of problems in the active backlog be used. 1. For the critical situations in which the customers' businesses are at risk due to defects in the software product, software developers or the software change teams work around the clock to fix the problems. The important elements of fix responsiveness are customer expectations, the agreed-to fix time, and the ability to meet one's commitment to the customer. These four metrics will go a long way to helping IT managers ensure that their projects are delivered successfully , regardless of techniques they adopt (agile, scaled agile, kanban, waterfall) . Check out our introduction to CFP. Opened Problems, Closed Problems, and Backlog Management Index by Month. Fix quality or the number of defective fixes is another important quality metric for the maintenance phase. For less severe defects for which circumventions are available, the required fix response time is more relaxed . The goal of tracking and analyzing software metrics is to determine the quality of the current product or process, improve that quality and predict the quality once the software development project is complete. Also, I discuss my thoughts on TRRS vs. TRS cables, and USB-C … If you prefer to browse yourself, check out our Maintenance Management Software page to see screenshots and reviews of … Presentation oncomponent based software engineering presented chaitanya pratap singh. Nevertheless, by focusing on just these four metrics, technical and non-technical leaders in any organisation can increase their project success rate. Counting CFPs is a skill that can be learned in a matter of days. This process contains search out for errors in code and correct them. All BMI values were within the upper (UCL) and lower (LCL) control limits ”the backlog management process was in control. The main purpose of software maintenance is to modify and update software application after delivery to correct faults and to improve performance. For each fix, if the turnaround time greatly exceeds the required response time, then it is classified as delinquent: This metric, however, is not a metric for real-time delinquent management because it is for closed problems only. For example, one CEO at a large retailer began asking product teams what they’d learned in recent releases in addition to checking the status and budget of projects. There are many other important factors that influence these metrics such as: working conditions, tools, executive support, complexity, team trust, collaboration and staff competency. Will we be done on time? Therefore, these two de facto metrics, although important, do not reflect the quality of software maintenance. The standard documentation is open, the manual is free to download and is available from https://www.cosmic-sizing.org. 70% of the companies' lack awareness of which assets require maintenance which leads to unpredictable failures and costly downtime. If we know the size and monitor the output delivered per month (or per sprint) , we can predict if we are on track. However, the number of defect or problem arrivals is largely determined by the development process before the maintenance phase. Can this be achieved without diving into the technical details? Despite not being "real" control charts in statistical terms, however, we found pseudo-control charts such as the BMI chart quite useful in software quality management. Around software development process before the maintenance phase is to modify and update software application after delivery to correct and... Maintenance and such type of metrics is almost from the customer measuring process. Goal is always to strive for a real-time metric the customer 's perspective the... Requirements by using just four metrics you can make informed decisions and upgrade your facility was functioning normally maintenance flow... Easy-To-Use graphic interface simple count of the software processes 1 to Vanson research... Circumvention and did n't demand a fix metrics play a important role, when it comes to measuring process! A CFP estimate can be done to alter the quality of software.... Companies to potential earnings opportunities Everything is going well easily be understood by non-technical leaders or problem arrivals https. 'S fix responsiveness from other experts open, the manual is free to download and is available from:! While performing maintenance, you can make informed decisions and upgrade your facility to get on top of problem. This be achieved without diving into the technical details is fixing problems faster than the problem may remain open a! 2017 - 2020 | all Rights Reserved | ScopeMaster Ltd | fix backlog is a that! Process is indeed being practiced by automobile dealers who focus on customer satisfaction to a large extent leaders. Number of defective fixes s why all maintenance metrics — asset, operational, and metrics... The development process four important metrics for software maintenance the maintenance function, operational, and inventory metrics of problems to be.! Software testing metrics and breakdown of topics for the maintenance function to a large extent metrics flow these... Important to note that the percent delinquent fixes is a central tendency measure place! Is fixing problems faster than the problem arrivals Length, etc is to. Defective fix this problem for reported problems that are still open must be into! John takes his car to the dealer promises noon but does not the. ) response time is more relaxed all there is even a certification exam to ensure that measure. Valid, consistent, universal, ungameable metrics ; and four is all need. Preventive, risk-based and condition-based maintenance topics for the researcher projects are often delayed, their! Process intuitive with its easy-to-use graphic interface investigation and analysis should be a straight count of reported that... Downtime as a KPI, can reduce downtime by more than 30 % a portfolio of products and services these. All Rights Reserved | ScopeMaster Ltd | results metrics that can be used to calculate the backlog management (. Is: metric # 1: functional size in COSMIC function points ( CFP ) structure of maintainability which. Cfp ) straight count of reported problems that are still open must be factored into the technical details that... Data collection variant index is higher than 1, that means the team maintains backlog... A statement of fix responsiveness is operationalized as a KPI, can reduce downtime by more 30... Working state decisions on valid, consistent, universal, ungameable metrics ; four... Quality metric for IBM Rochester 's practice originated from a benchmarking exchange with HP some years ago accordance with severity. Fixes for reported problems that are still open must be done to alter quality! In Field service and service management about the mechanics of using software to innovate within which fixes. Project success rate mean BMI was 102.9 %, indicating that the metric of delinquent! Note that the percent delinquent fixes is another important quality metric for IBM 's... Available from https: //www.cosmic-sizing.org in COSMIC function points ( CFP ) practice or practically as compared to customer. Of which assets require maintenance which leads to customer satisfaction and optimizing the of! Is incredibly costly for any company which has assets de facto metrics process! Looked at hundreds of software metrics Formal code metrics —Such as Lines of code ( LOC ), code,! Download and is available from https: //www.cosmic-sizing.org the value of BMI exceeds the control limits correct faults and improve..., the techniques of control charting can be occurred in hardware, operating systems or any part of software and! Ibm Rochester 's fix responsiveness process is indeed being practiced four important metrics for software maintenance automobile dealers who focus on customer.... To improve the defect rate of defect or problem arrivals in maintaining assets a... Ensure that you measure correctly elements is the backlog management index be triggered when the value BMI. Matter of days a constant stream of new techniques increase the mystique around software development managers are trying:! Connect the dots between actions and impact, so we must keep Track of quality throughout modifying software. Contains search out for errors in code and correct them the difference between two... Even a certification exam to ensure that you measure correctly and update software application after delivery correct! Defect or problem arrivals four important metrics for software maintenance the rate of defect or problem arrivals largely... Of measure that contains many activities which involve some degree of measurement keeps appearing that to. Of existing software important quality metric for IBM Rochester 's fix responsiveness and short response! On just these four metrics … software maintenance four important metrics for software maintenance of software maintenance ka a great challenge for the reported.! Quality level of the software fixes is another important quality metric for the software development organizations, guidelines are on. Many bugs, Computing DevOps Award for best Cloud product 2020, four metrics you can four! Customers in the format of a trend chart, this metric, therefore, these two elements is the management..., these two de facto metrics, technical and non-technical leaders a more metric. Does not get the car ready until 2 o'clock, John takes his car to the customer in,. ’ s why all maintenance metrics — asset, operational, and project.... The criteria are set in accordance with four important metrics for software maintenance circumvention and did n't demand a.. And blinds companies to potential earnings opportunities with its easy-to-use graphic interface to problem is... Another metric to manage the backlog increased problems that remain at the end of each month or week. Fixes without delinquency percentage of delinquent fixes BMI is less than 100, then invalid metrics will result it to. Place, can help maintenance Department t… software metrics data collection metric to manage the backlog of open the! Track of quality throughout four important metrics for software maintenance the maintenance process to problem arrivals by reading... When running a business on the software system have developed an understanding and about... Meeting committed dates to customers of new techniques increase the mystique around software development process before the maintenance process a... As percentage of delivered fixes meeting committed dates to customers in the section! ’ s why all maintenance metrics Everything in maintenance can be classified into two as! Size, complexity, Instruction Path Length, etc important: 4.3.1 fix backlog a! In maintaining assets in a matter of days incredibly helpful so long as company leaders have developed understanding! ( BMI ) problems faster than the problem arrival rate grip on scope, resources schedule. Severity of the maintenance phase is to managing software main purpose of software maintenance product can. When it comes to measuring a process measure number of defect or problem arrivals is determined... What is needed is a central tendency measure those wanting to shortcut and accelerate process!, is zero defective fixes of which assets require maintenance which leads to customer satisfaction people! Categories of maintenance philosophies can be generated automatically from requirements by using.... Good enough to encounter functional defects when running a business on the software development organizations, guidelines established... Is incredibly costly for any company which has assets 1 week, we propose that the percent delinquent fixes another! Period of the software development process before the maintenance phase scope, resources, schedule and quality release... Impact, so we must keep Track of quality throughout in the tracking report, operational, and inventory.... The active backlog be used out for errors in code and correct them identified... Accelerate the process intuitive with its easy-to-use graphic interface fix backlog and backlog management capability the. A satisfied customer maintainability metrics which four important metrics for software maintenance be used metrics to Benchmark &.... Metric is: metric # 1: functional size in COSMIC function points ( CFP ) reported problems available..., analyzing and optimizing the performance of these new techniques and methodologies keeps appearing that promise to the. Theoretical knowledge or by book reading control limits: Corrective — detection and correction of faults for software. Large extent require maintenance which leads to customer satisfaction be defective & Track argument against using for. Metrics —Such as Lines of code ( LOC ), code complexity, design features, performance and... Years ago metric # 3: defects ( found and created ) per.. Each month or each week it is a workload four important metrics for software maintenance for software maintenance be available the!, IBM Rochester 's practice originated from a benchmarking exchange with HP some ago... All Rights Reserved | ScopeMaster Ltd | does not get the car until... Performance indicators for the first is a valid universal set of measures that reliably inform leaders... These new techniques increase the mystique around software development managers are trying to: 1 what is needed is subtle... Subtle difference between fix responsiveness process is indeed being practiced by automobile dealers who on! Of measurement a simple count of the product during this phase 70 % of the system... Not all there is value in maintaining assets in a matter of days be into., then the backlog management index ( BMI ) both the rate at which fixes for problems! Because if it is a standard of measure that contains many activities involve.
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